Since 2005, the Energy and Water Development (E&W) appropriations bill has funded all Department of Energy (DOE) programs, including those operated by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). That office conducts two types of programs: research and development (R&D), usually conducted in partnership with private sector firms, and grant funds that are distributed to state governments. EERE administers a wide range of R&D programs, each with its own set of goals and objectives.